Functional diversity: a key aspect in the provision of ecosystem services

Diversidad funcional: un aspecto clave en la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos

Contenido principal del artículo

Universidad de Córdoba, Departamento de Biología. Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Grupo Investigación Biodiversidad, Montería, Colombia.
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología, Laboratorio de Ecología Funcional, Grupo de investigación UNESIS, Bogotá, Colombia.


 Functional diversity is one of the crucial aspects of the functioning of ecosystems and the provision of ecosystem services. In this review paper, we analyze how biodiversity contributes to human well-being through the provision of goods and ecosystem services, and related aspects of ecological processes and their relationship with the functional diversity of ecosystems are presented. It aims to explain in a simple way, the concepts related to functional diversity, the importance of the functional groups and the role of functional traits of the species as a key element in the responses of organisms to environmental changes. Understanding the relationship between ecosystem processes, functional diversity of species and providing ecosystem services, allow better management of natural ecosystems and their biodiversity, enabling conservation and sustainable use of different types of services provided by ecosystems.

Palabras clave:


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Detalles del artículo

Referencias (VER)

ALTSHULER, D.L. 2006. Flight performance and competitive displacement of hummingbirds across elevational gradients. The American Naturalist 167:216-229.

ANDERSON, S.H.; KELLY, D.; LADLEY, J.J.; MOLLOY, S.; TERRY, J. 2011. Cascading effects of bird functional extinction reduce pollination and plant density. Science 331:1068-1071.

BALVANERA, P. 2012. Los servicios ecosistémicos que ofrecen los bosques tropicales. Ecosistemas 21 (1-2):136-147.

BALVANERA, P.; PFISTERER, A.B.; BUCHMANN, N.; HE, J.; NAKASHIZUKA, T.; RAFFAELLI, D.; SCHMID, B. 2006. Quantifying the evidence for biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning and services. Ecology Letters 9:1146–1156.

BARBIER, E.B.; KOCH, E.W.; SILLIMAN, B.R.; HACKER, S.D.; WOLANSKI, E.; PRIMAVERA, J.; et al. 2008. Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values. Science 319:321–323.

BENITO-GARZÓN, M.; ALÍA, R.; ROBSON, T.M.; ZAVALA, M.A. 2011. Intra-specific variability and plasticity influence potential tree species distributions under climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20:766-778.

BENNETT, A.F; SAUNDERS, D.A. 2010. Habitat fragmentation and landscape change. In: Sodhi, N.S.; Ehrlich, P.R. Conservation Biology for All. Oxford University Press. New York

BENNETT, E. M.; PETERSON, G. D.; GORDON, L.J. 2009. Understanding relationships among multiple ecosystem services. Ecology Letters 12:1–11.

BHASKAR, R.; DAWSON T. E.; BALVANERA, P. 2014. Community assembly and functional diversity along succession in a secondary tropical dry forest post-agricultural use. Functional Ecology 28:1256-1265.

BISWAS, S.R.; MALLIK, A.U. 2010. Disturbance effects on species diversity and functional diversity in riparian and upland plant communities. Ecology 91:28-35.

BLONDEL, J. 2003. Guilds or functional groups: does it matter? Oikos 100 (2):223-231.

BODIN, P.; WIMEN, B.L. 2007. The usefulness of stability concepts in forest management when coping with

increasing climate uncertainties. Forest Ecology and Management 242:541-552.

BRAUMAN, K.A.; DAILY, G.C.; DUARTE, T.K.; MOONEY, H.A. 2007. The nature and value of ecosystem services: an overview highlighting hydrologic services. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32:67-98.

BUISSON, L.; GRENOUILLET, G.; VILLEGER, S.; CANAL, J.; LAFFAILLE, P. 2013. Toward a loss of functional diversity in stream fish assemblages under climate change. Global Change Biology 19:387-400.

BUTCHART, S.H.; WALPOLE, M.; COLLEN, B.; VAN STRIEN, A.; SCHARLEMANN, J.P.; ALMOND, R.E.; BAILLIE, J.E.; et al. 2010. Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. Science 328:1164-1168.

CADOTTE, M.W.; CARSCADEN, K.; MIROTCHNICK, N. 2011. Review. Beyond species: functional diversity and the maintenance of ecological processes and services. British Ecological Society. Journal of Applied Ecology 44(5):1079-1087.

CADOTTE, M.W.; DINNAGE, R.; TILMAN, D. 2012. Phylogenetic diversity promotes ecosystem stability. Ecology 93:A223-S233.

CADOTTE, M.W.; STRAUSS, S.Y. 2011. Phylogenetic patterns of colonization and extinction in experimentally assembled plant communities. PLoS One 6:e19363.

CAMACHO, V.; RUÍZ, A. 2012. Marco conceptual y clasificación de los servicios ecosistémicos. Artículo de revisión. Revista Bio Ciencias 4(1):3-15.

CARDINALE, B. J.; MATULICH, K.L.; HOOPER, D.U.; BYRNES, J.E.; DUFFY, E.; GAMFELDT, L.; BALVANERA, P.; et al. 2011. The functional role of producer diversity in ecosystems. American Journal of Botany 98(3):572-592

CARDINALE, B. J; DUFFY, J.E.; GONZALEZ, A.; HOOPER, D.U.; PERRINGS, C.; VENAIL, P.; NARWANI, A.; et al. 2012. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486 (7401):59-67.

CARDINALE, B.J.; SRIVASTAVA, D.S.; DUFFY, J.E.; WRIGHT, J.P.; DOWNING, A.L.; SANKARAN, M.; JOUSEAU, C. 2006. Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems. Nature 443 (7114):989-992.

CARDOSO, P.; PEKÁR, S.; JOCQUÉ, R.; CODDINGTON, J.A. 2011. Global Patterns of Guild Composition and Functional Diversity of Spiders. PLoS One 6 (6):e21710.

CARPENTER, S.R.; BENNETT, E.M.; PETERSON, G.D. 2006A. Scenarios for ecosystem services: an overview. Ecology and Society 11(1):29. (Online) URL:

CARPENTER, S.R.; DEFRIES, R.; DIETZ, T.; MOONEY, H.A.; POLASKY, S.; REID, W.V. 2006. Millennium ecosystem assessment: research needs. Science 314:257-258.

CARPENTER, S.R.; MOONEY, H.A.; AGARD, J.; CAPISTRANO, D.; DEFRIES, R.S.; DÍAZ, S.; DIETZ, T.; et al. 2009. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106:1305-1312.

CARREÑO-ROCABADO, G.; PEÑA-CLAROS, M.; BONGERS, F.; ALARCÓN, A.; LICONA, J.C.; POORTER, L. 2012. Effects of disturbance intensity on species and functional diversity in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology 100:1453-1463.

CASANOVES, F.; PLA, L.; DI RIENZO, J.A. 2011. Valoración y análisis de la diversidad funcional y su relación con los servicios ecosistémicos. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza. Serie técnica, Informe Técnico 384/ CATIE. Turrialba, Costa Rica.

CAVENDER-BARES, J.; RICH, P.B. 2012. Shocks to the system: community assembly of the oak savanna in a 40-year fire frequency experiment. Ecology 93:S52-S69.

CHAN, K.M.; SHAW, M.R.; CAMERON, D.R.; UNDERWOOD, E.C.; DAILY, G.C. 2006. Conservation planning for ecosystem services. PLoS Biology 4:2138-2152.

CHAPIN, F.S.; WALKER, B.H.; HOBBS, R.J.; HOOPER, D.U.; LAWTON, J.H.; SALA, O.E.; TILMAN, D. 1997. Biotic control over the functioning of ecosystems. Science 277:500-504.

CHAZDON, R.L.; FINEGAN, B.; CAPERS, R.S.; SALGADO-NEGRET, B.; CASANOVES, F.; BOUKILI, V.; NORDEN, N. 2010. Composition and dynamics of functional groups of trees during tropical forest succession in northeastern Costa Rica. Biotropica 42:31-40.

CLARK, J. 2010. Individuals and the variation needed for high species diversity in forest trees. Science 327:1129-1132.

CONCOSTRINA, L.; PESCADOR, D. S.; MARTINEZ, I.; ESCUDERO, A. 2014. Climate and small scale factors determine functional diversity shifts of biological soil crusts in Iberian drylands. Biodiversity and Conservation 23(7):1757-1770.

CONTI, G.; DÍAZ, S. 2013. Plant functional diversity and carbon storage – an empirical test in semi-arid forest ecosystems. Journal of Ecology 101:18-28.

CORNWELL, W.K.; ACKERLY, D.D. 2009. Community assembly and shifts in plant trait distributions across an environmental gradient in coastal California. Ecological Monographs 79:109-126.

CORTÉS-GÓMEZ, A.M.; RUIZ-AGUDELO, C.A.; VALENCIA-AGUILAR, A.; LADLE, R.J. 2015. Ecological functions of Neotropical amphibians and reptiles: a review. Universitas Scientiarum 20:229-245.

COSTANZA, R.; D´ARGE, R.; DE GROOT, R.; FARBER, S.; GRASSO, M.; HANNON, B.; et al. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253–260.

CRUTSINGER, G.M.; SOUZA, L.; SANDERS, N.J. 2008. Intraspecific diversity and dominant genotypes resist plant invasions. Ecology Letter 11:16-23.

DALSGAARD, B.; MAGÅRD, E.; FJELDSÅ, J.; MARTÍN-GONZÁLEZ, A.M.; RAHBEK, C.; OLESEN, J.M.; OLLERTON, J.; et al. 2011. Specialization in plant-hummingbird networks is associated with species richness, contemporary precipitation and Quaternary climate-change velocity. PLoS ONE 6:e25891.

DE BELLO, F.; LAVOREL, S.; DÍAZ, S.; HARRINGTON, R.; CORNELISSEN, J.H.; BARDGETT, R.D.; BERG, M.P.; et al. 2010. Towards an assessment of multiple ecosystem processes and services via functional traits. Biodiversity and Conservation 19:2873-2893.

DÍAZ, S.; CABIDO, M. 2001. Vive la difference: plant functional diversity matters to ecosystem functioning (review). Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16:646-655.

DÍAZ, S.; FARGIONE, J.; CHAPIN III, F.S.; TILMAN, D. 2006. Biodiversity loss threatens human well-being. PLoS Biology 4:e277.

DÍAZ, S.; GURVICH, D.E.; PÉREZ, H.N; CABIDO, M. 2002. ¿Quién necesita tipos funcionales de plantas? Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de Argentina 37 1-2):135-140.

DÍAZ, S.; HECTOR, A.; WARDLE, D.A. 2009. Biodiversity in forest carbon sequestration initiatives: not just a side benefit. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 1:55-60.

DÍAZ, S.; HODGSON, J.G.; THOMPSON, K.; CABIDO, M.; CORNELISSEN, J.H.; JALILI, A.; MONTSERRAT-MARTÍ, G.; et al. 2004. The plant traits that drive ecosystems: Evidence from three continents. Journal of Vegetation Science 15:295–304.

DÍAZ, S.; QUÉTIER, F.; CÁCERES, D.M.; TRAINORC, S.F.; PÉREZ-HARGUINDEGUY, N.; BRET-HARTED, M.S.; FINEGAN, B.; et al. 2011. Linking functional diversity and social actor strategies in a framework for interdisciplinary analysis of nature’s benefits to society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA (PNAS) 108:895-902.

DIAZ, S.; SYMSTAD, A.J.; CHAPIN, F.S.; WARDLE, D.A; HUENNEKE, L.F. 2003. Functional diversity revealed by removal experiments. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18:140-146.

DÍAZ, S.; TILMAN, D.; FARGIONE, J.; CHAPIN III, F.S.; DIRZO, R.; KITZBERGER, T.; GEMMILL, B.; et al. 2005. Biodiversity regulation of ecosystem services. In: Ecosystems and human well-being: Current state and trends. Page 297-329. Hassan, R.; Scholes, R.; Ash, N. (Eds.). Island Press. Washington D.C.

DÍAZ, S; LAVOREL, S.; DE BELLO, F.; QUÉTIER, F.; GRIGULIS, K; ROBSON, T.M. 2007. Incorporating plant functional diversity effects in ecosystem service assessments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(52):20684-20689.

DREVER, C.R.; PETERSON, G.; MESSIER, C.; BERGERON, Y; FLANNIGAN, M.D. 2006. Can forests management based on natural disturbances maintain ecological resilience? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36:2285-2299.

DUFFY, J.E. 2002. Biodiversity and ecosystem function: the consumer connection. Oikos 99:201-219.

DUFFY, J.E.; CARDINALE, B.J.; FRANCE, K.E.; MCINTYRE, P.B.; THÉBAULT, E.; LOREAU, M. 2007. The functional role of biodiversity in ecosystems: incorporating trophic complexity. Ecology Letter 10(6):522-538.

EGOH, B.; REYERS, B.; ROUGET, M.; RICHARDSON, D.M; LEMAITRE, D.C.; VAN JAARSVELD, A.S. 2008. Mapping ecosystem services for planning and management. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 127:135-140.

EHLERS, A.; WORM, B.; REUSCH, T.B. 2008. Importance of genetic diversity in Eelgrass Zostera marina for its resilience to global warming. Marine Ecology Progress Series 355:1-7.

ENGELHARDT, K.A.; RITCHIE, M. 2002. The effect of aquatic plant species richness on wetland ecosystem processes. Ecology 83:2911-2924.

FISHER, B.; TURNE, R.K.; MORLING, P. 2009. Defining and classifying ecosystem services for decision making. Ecological Economics 68:643-653.

FOLEY, J.A.; DEFRIES, R.; ASNER, G.P.; BARFORD, C.; BONAN, G.; CARPENTER, S.R.; et al. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–574.

GALLAI, N.; SALLES, J.M.; SETTELE, J.; VAISSION, B.E. 2009. Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68(3):810–821.

GAMFELDT, L.; HILLEBRAND, H.; JONSSON, P.R. 2008. Multiple functions increase the importance of biodiversity for overall ecosystem functioning. Ecology 89:1223-1231.

GIBSON, L; SODHI, N.S. 2011. Habitats at risk: a step forward, a step back. Science 331:1137-1137.

GITAY, H.; NOBLE, I.R. 1997. What are functional types and how should we seek them? Page 3-19. In: Smith, T.M.; Shugart, H.H.; Woodward, F.I. (Eds.). Plant functional types. University Press. Cambridge.

GÓMEZ-BAGGETHUN, E.; DE GROOT, R. 2007. Capital natural y funciones de los ecosistemas: explorando las bases ecológicas de la economía. Ecosistemas 16:3 (

GORDON, L.G.; ENFORS, E.I. 2008. Land degradation, ecosystem services, and resilience of smallholder farmers in Makanya catchment, Tanzania. Page 33-50. In: Bossio, D.; Geheb, K. (Eds.). Conserving Land, Protecting Water. CAB., UK.

GRANT, P.R.; GRANT, B.R. 2014. 40 years of evolution. Darwin’s finches on Daphne Major Island. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

HADDAD, C.F.B.; PRADO, C.P.A. 2005. Reproductive modes in frogs and their unexpected diversity in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. BioScience 55:208-217.

HAINES-YOUNG, R.; POSTCHIN, M. 2010. The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being. Page 110-139. In: Rafaelli, D.; Frid, C. (Eds.) Ecosystem Ecology: A new synthesis. BES Ecological Reviews Series, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

HARRINGTON, R.; ANTON, C.; DAWSON, T.P.; DE BELLO, F.; FELD, C.K.; HASLETT, J.R.; KLUVÁNKOVA-ORAVSKÁ, T.; et al. 2010. Ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation: concepts and a glossary. Biodiversity & Conservation 19:2773-2790.

HECTOR, A.; BAGCHI, R. 2007. Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 448:7150:188-190.

HEIN L.; VAN KOOPEN, K.; DE GROOT, R.S.; VAN LERLAND, E.C. 2006. Spatial scales, stakeholders and the

valuation of ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 57:209-228.

HILLEBRAND, H.; MATTHIESSEN, B. 2009. Biodiversity in a complex world: consolidation and progress in functional biodiversity research. Ecology Letters 12 (12):1405-1419.

HITT N.P.; CHAMBERS, D.B. 2014. Temporal changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of fish assemblages downstream from mountaintop mining. Freshwater Science 33:915-926.

HOFFMANN, M; HILTON-TAYLOR, C; ANGULO, A; BÔHM, M; BROKS, T.M; BUTCHART, S.H; CARPENTER, K.E; et al. 2010. The impact of Conservation on the Status of the World’s Vertebrates. Science 330:1503-1509.

HOOPER D.U.; VITOUSEK, P.M. 1997. The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes. Science 277:1302-1305.

HOOPER, D.U.; CHAPIN, F.S.; EWEL, J.J.; HECTOR, A.; INCHAUSTI, P.; LAVOREL SLAWTON J.H.; LODGE, D.M.; et al. 2005. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs 75(1):3-35.

HOOPER, D.U.; M. SOLAN, A.; SYMSTAD, S.; DIAZ, M.O.; GESSNER, N.; BUCHMANN, V.; DESGRANGE, P.; et al. 2002. Species diversity, functional diversity and ecosystem functioning. Page 195-208. In: Loreau, M.; Naeem, S.; Inchausti (Eds.). Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. University Pres, Oxford. UK.

IUCN, Conservation International, Arizona State University, Texas A & M University, University of Rome, University of Virginia, Zoological Society of London. 2008. An analysis of mammals on the 2008 IUCN Red List. (

IVES, R.; CARPENTER, S.R. 2007. Stability and Diversity of Ecosystems. Science 317:5834:58-62.

JARVIS, E.D.; MIRARAB, S.; ABERER, A.J.; LI, B.; HOUDE, P.; LI, C.; HO, S.Y.W.; et al. 2014. Whole-genome

analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science 346:1320-1331.

JASTRZĘBSKA, M.; WANIC, M.; KOSTRZEWSKA, M. K.; TREDER, K.; NOWICKI, J. 2012. An attempt to use functional diversity indices for the assessment of weed communities. Acta Agrobotanica 65:129-140.

JUNG, V.; VIOLLE, C.; MONDY, C.; HOFFMANN, L.; MULLER, S. 2010. Intraspecific variability and trait-based

community assembly. Journal of Ecology 98:1134-1140.

KAREIVA, P.; WATTS, S.; MCDONALD, R.; BOUCHER, T. 2007. Domesticated nature: shaping landscapes and ecosystems for human welfare. Science 316:1866–1869.

KOCH, E.W.; BARBIER, E.B.; SILLIMAN, B.R.; REED, D.J.;PERILLO, G.M.; HACKER, S.D.; GRANEK, E.F.; et al. 2009. Non-linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1):29-37.

KREMEN, C. 2005. Managing ecosystem services: What do we need to know about their ecology? Ecology Letters 8:468–479.

KREMEN, C.; OSTFELD, R.S. 2005. A call to ecologists: measuring, analyzing, and managing ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3:540-548.

KREMEN, C.; WILLIAMS, N.M.; AIZEN, M.A.; GEMMILL-HERREN, B.; LEBUHN, G.; MINCKLEY, R.; PACKER, L.; et al. 2007. Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change. Ecology Letters 10:299–314.

KUNZ, T.H.; BRAUN DE TORRES, E.; BAUER, D.; LOBOVA, T.; FLEMING, T.H. 2011. Ecosystem services provided by bats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1223:1-38

LALIBERTÉ, E.; LEGENDRE, P. 2010. A distance-based framework for measuring functional diversity from multiple traits. Ecology 91(1):299-305.

LAVOREL, S.; GARNIER, E. 2002. Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: Revisiting the Holy Grail. Functional Ecology 16:545-556.

LAVOREL, S.; GRIGULIS, K.; LAMARQUE, P.; COLACE, M.P.; GARDEN, D.; GIREL, J.; PELLET, G.; DOUZET, R. 2011. Using plant functional traits to understand the landscape distribution of multiple ecosystem services. Journal of Ecology 99:135-147.

LAVOREL, S.; MCINTYRE, S.; LANDSBERG, J.; FORBES, T.D.A. 1997. Plant functional classifications: from general groups to specific groups based on response to disturbance. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12:474-478.

LAWES, M.J.; RICHARDS, A.; DATHE, J.; MIDGLEY, J.J. 2011. Bark thickness determines fire resistance of selected tree species from fire-prone tropical savanna in north Australia. Plant Ecology 212:2057-2069.

LI, J.M.; JIN Z.; HAGEDORN, F.; LI, M.H. 2014. Short-term parasite-infection alters already the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Natural Science Report 4:11085.

LOHBECK, M.; POORTER, L-; PAZ, H.; PLA, L.; VAN BREUGEL, M.; MARTÍNEZ-RAMOS, M.; BONGERS, F. 2012. Functional diversity changes during tropical forest succession. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 14:89-96

LOHBECK, M.; POORTER, L.; LEBRIJA-TEJOS, E.; MARTÍNEZ-RAMOS, M.; MEAVE, J.A.; PAZ, H.; PÉREZ-GARCÍA, E.A.; et al. 2013. Successional changes in functional composition contrast for dry and wet tropical forest. Ecology 94:1211-1216.

LONGHI, M.L.; BEISNER, B.E. 2010. Patterns of taxonomic and functional diversity in Lake Phytoplankton. Freshwater Biology 55:1349-1366.

LOREAU, M.S.; NAEEM, P.; INCHAUSTI, J.; BENGTSSON, J.P.; GRIME, A.; HECTOR, D.U.; HOOPER, M.A.; et al. 2001. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294:804-808.

LUCK, G.W.; HARRINGTON, R.; HARRISON, P.A.; KREMEN, C.; BERRY, P.M.; BUGTER, R.; DAWSON, T.P.; et al. 2009. Quantifying the contribution of organisms to the provision of ecosystem services. Bioscience 59:223-235.

LUCK, G.W.; S. LAVOREL, S.; MCINTYRE, S.; LUMB, K. 2012. Improving the application of vertebrate trait-based frameworks to the study of ecosystem services. Journal of Animal Ecology 81:1065-1076.

MARKESTEIJN, L.; POORTER, L.; BONGERS, F.; PAZ, H.; SACK. L.2011. Hydraulics and life history of tropical dry forest tree species: coordination of species drought and shade tolerance. New Phytologist 191:480-495.

MARTÍNEZ-RAMOS, M. 2008. Grupos funcionales. Págs. 365-412. En: Capital natural de México. Vol. I: Conocimiento actual de la biodiversidad. Conabio, México.

MARTÍN-LÓPEZ, B.; GÓMEZ-BAGGETHUN, E.; GONZÁLEZ, J.A.; LOMAS, P.L.; MONTES, C. 2009. The assessment of ecosystem services provided by biodiversity: re-thinking concepts and research needs. In: Aronoff, J.B. (Ed.). Handbook of Nature Conservation: Global, Environmental and Economic Issues. Nova Science Publishers. New York.

MARTÍN-LÓPEZ, B.; GONZÁLEZ, J.A.; DÍAZ, S.; CASTRO, I.; GARCÍA-LLORENTE, M. 2007. Biodiversidad y bienestar humano: el papel de la diversidad funcional. Ecosistemas 16(3):69-80.

MASON, N.W.H, MOUILLOT, D; LEE, W.G.; BASTOW, W.; 2005. Functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence: the primary components of functional diversity. Oikos 111:112-118.

MASON, N.W.H; DE BELLO, F.; MOUILLOT, D.; PAVOINE, S.; DRAY, S. 2013. A guide for using functional diversity indices to reveal changes in assembly processes along ecological gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science 24:794-806.

MCCULLOH, K.A.; MEINZER, F.C.; SPERRY, J.S.; LACHENBRUCH, B.; VOELKER, S.L.; WOODRUFF, D.R.; DOMEC, J.C. 2011. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density. Oecologia 167:27-37.

MILLENNIUM ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

MONFREDA, C.; RAMANKUTTY, N.; FOLEY, J.A. 2008. Farming the planet: 2. Geographic distribution of crop areas, yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the year 2000. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22. Doi: 10.1029/2007GB002947.

MONTES, C. 2007. Del Desarrollo Sostenible a los servicios de los ecosistemas. Ecosistemas, Vol.16, No.3 (

MONTES, C.; LOMAS, P.L. 2010. La Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio en España. Ambiental 21:56-75.

MOONEY, H.A. 2010. Review. The ecosystem-service chain and the biological diversity crisis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (365):31-39.

MOUQUET, M.A.; VILLEGER S.; MASON, N.W.H.; MOUILLOT, D. 2010. Functional diversity measures: an overview of their redundancy and their ability to discriminate community assembly rules. Functional Ecology 24:867-876.

NARWANI, A.; MATTHEWS, B.; FOX, J.; VENAIL, P. 2015. Using phylogenetic in community assembly and ecosystems functioning research. Functional Ecology 29:589-591.

NELSON, E.; MENDOZA, G.; REGETZ, J.; POLASKY, S.; TALLIS, H.; CAMERON, D.R.; CHAN, K.M.; et al. 2009. Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:4-11.

ONEY, B.; REINEKING, B.; O’NEILL, G.; KREYLING, J. 2013. Intraspecific variation buffers projected climate change impacts on Pinus contorta. Ecology and Evolution 3:437-449.

PAGANELLI, D.; MARCHINI, A.; OCCHIPINTI-AMBROGI, A. 2012. Functional structure of marine benthic assemblages using Biological Traits Analysis (BTA): a study along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (Italy, North-West Adriatic Sea). Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 96:245-256.

PAINE, C.E.; BARALOTO, C.; CHAVE, J.; HÉRAULT, B. 2011. Functional traits of individual trees reveal ecological constraints on community assembly in tropical rain forests. Oikos 120:720-727

PAKERMAN, R.J. 2011. Multivariate identification of plant functional response and effect traits in an agricultural landscape. Ecology 92:1353-1365.

PALFFY, K.; PRESING, M.; VOROS, L. 2013. Diversity patterns of trait-based phytoplankton functional groups in two basins of a large, shallow lake (Lake Balaton, Hungary) with different trophic state. Aquatic Ecology 47:195-210.

PAULA, S.; PAUSAS, J.G. 2011. Root traits explain different foraging strategies between resprouting life histories. Oecologia 165:321-331.

PEARMAN, P.B.; DÁMEN, M.; GRAHAM, C.H.; THUILLER, W.; ZIMMERMANN, N.E. 2010. Within-taxon niche structure: niche conservatism, divergence and predicted effects of climate change. Ecography 33:990-1003.

PEASE, A.A.; GONZÁLEZ-DÍAZ, A.A.; RODILES-HERNÁNDEZ, R.; WINEMILLER, K.O. 2012. Functional diversity and trait–environment relationships of stream fish assemblages in a large tropical catchment. Freshwater Biology 57:1060-1075.

PETERSON, G.; ALLEN, C.R.; HOLLING, C.S. 1998. Ecological resilience, biodiversity and scale. Ecosystems 1:6-18.

PETERSON, G.D.; BEARD, D.; BEISNER, B.; BENNETT, E.; CARPENTER, S.; CUMMING, G.; DENT, C.L.; et al. 2003. Assessing future ecosystem services: a case study of the northern highland Lake District, Wisconsin. Conservation and Ecology 7(3):1.

PLA, L.; CASANOVES, F.; DI-RIENZO, J. 2012. Quantifying Functional Biodiversity. Springer Briefs in Environmental Science. Series: Springer Briefs in Environmental Science, Springer Netherlands, Amsterdam. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2648-2

POLANIA, C.; PLA, L.; CASANOVES, F. 2011. Diversidad funcional y servicios ecosistémicos. En: CASANOVES, F.; PLA, L.; DI RIENZO, J.A (Eds.). Valoración y análisis de la diversidad funcional y su relación con los servicios ecosistémicos. Serie Técnica 384, CATIE. Turrialba, Costa Rica.

POMERLEAU, C.; SASTRI, A.R.; BEISNER, B.E. 2015. Evaluation of functional trait diversity for marine zooplankton communities in the Northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean. Journal of Plankton Research 37(4):712-726.

PRETTY, J.N.; NOBLE, A.D.; BOSSIO, D.; DIXON, J.; HINE, R.E.; DE VRIES, F.; et al. 2006. Resource-conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries. Environment Science Technology 40:1114-1119.

PUTZ, F.E.; ZUIDEMA, P.A.; SYNNOTT, T.; PEÑA-CLAROS, M.; PINARD, M.A.; SHEIL, D.; VANCLAY, J.K.; et al. 2012. Sustaining conservation values in selectively logged tropical forests: the attained and the attainable. Conservation Letters 5:296-303.

QUÉTIER, F.; LAVOREL, S.; THUILLER, W.; DAVIES, I. 2007. Plant-trait-based modeling assessment of ecosystem service sensitivity to land-use change. Ecological Applications 17(8):2377-2386.

QUIJAS, S.; SCHMID, B.; BALVANERA, P. 2010. Plant diversity enhances provision of ecosystem services: a new synthesis. Basic and Applied Ecology 11:582–593.

RAMANKUTTY, N.; EVAN, A.T.; MONFREDA, C.; FOLEY, J.A. 2008. Farming the planet: 1. Geographic distribution of global agricultural lands in the year 2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 22. Doi: 10.1029/2007 GB002952.

RANDS, M.R.; ADAMS, W.M.; BENNUN, L.; BUTCHART, S.H.; CLEMENTS, A.; COOMES, D.; ENTWISTLE, A.; et al. 2010. Biodiversity Conservation: Challenges Beyond. Science 239:1298-1303.

RICOTTA, C. 2005. A note on functional diversity measures. Basic and Applied Ecology 6:479-486.

RODRÍGUEZ, J.P.; BEARD, T.D.; BENNETT, E.M.; CUMMING, G.S.; CORK, S.J.; AGARD, J; et al. 2006. Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecology Society 11 (1):28.

ROSCHER, C.; SCHUMACHER, J.; LIPOWSKY, A.; GUBSCHE, M.; WEIGELT, A.; POMPE, S.; KOLL, O.; et al. 2013. A functional trait-based approach to understand community assembly and diversity–productivity relationships over 7 years in experimental grasslands. PPEES 15:139-149.

RUIZ-JAEN, M.C.; POTVIN, C. 2011. Can we predict carbon stocks in tropical ecosystems from tree diversity? Comparing species and functional diversity in a plantation and a natural forest. New Phytologist 189:978–987.

SALDAÑA, A. 2013. Relación entre riqueza de especies y diversidad funcional de atributos foliares en dos ensambles de especies siempre verdes de un bosque templado lluvioso. Gayana Botanica 70(2):177-186.

SALGADO-NEGRET, B. (Ed). 2015. La ecología funcional como aproximación al estudio, manejo y conservación de la biodiversidad: protocolos y aplicaciones. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. Bogotá, D. C. Colombia.

SALGADO-NEGRET, B.; PÉREZ, F.; MARKESTEIJN, L.; JIMENEZ-CASTILLO, M.; ARMESTO, J.J. 2013. Diverging drought tolerance strategies explain tree species distribution along a fog-dependent moisture gradient in a temperate rain forest. Oecologia 173:625-635.

SCHITTKO, C.; HAWA, M.; WURS, T.S. 2014. Using a multi-trait approach to manipulate plant functional diversity in a biodiversity-ecosystem function experiment. PLoS One 9: e99065.

SCHREIBER, S.; BÜRGER, R.; BOLNICK, D.I. 2011. The community effects of phenotypic and genetic variation within a predator population. Ecology 92:1582-1593.

SPEHN, E.M.; SCHERER-LORENZEN, M.; SCHMID, B.; HECTOR, A.; CALDEIRA, M.C.; DIMITRAKOPOULOS, P.G.; FINN, J.A.; et al. 2002. The role of legumes as a component of biodiversity in a cross-European study of grassland biomass nitrogen. Oikos 98:205-218.

STUART-SMITH, R.D.; BATES, A.E.; LEFCHECK, J.S.; DUFFY, J.E.; BAKER, S.C.; THOMSON, R.J.; STUART-SMITH, J.F.; et al. 2013. Integrating abundance and functional traits reveals new global hotspots of fish diversity. Nature 501:539-542.

SUDING, K.N.; GOLDSTEIN, L.J. 2008. Testing the Holy Grail framework: using functional traits to predict ecosystem change. New Phytologist 180:559-562.

TALLIS, H.; KAREIVA, P. 2005. Ecosystem services. Current Biology 15:R746-R748.

TANAKA, Y. 2012. Trait response in communities to environmental change: effect of interspecific competition

and trait covariance structure. Theoretical Ecology 5(1):83-98.

TEEB. 2008. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. Interim Report. European Communities (

THOMPSON, I. 2011. Biodiversidad, umbrales ecosistémicos, resiliencia y degradación forestal. Unasylva 238(62):25-30

THOMPSON, I.; MACKEY, B.; MCNULTY, S.; MOSSELER, A. 2009. Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Technical Series no. 43. Montreal, Canada.

TOWNSEND, C.R. 2007. Ecological applications: Towards a sustainable world. Blackwell Publishing. Londres.

TURBÉ, A; DE TONI, A.; BENITO, P.; LAVELLE, P.; LAVELLE, P.; RUIZ, N.; VAN DER PUTTEN, W.H; et al., 2010. Soil biodiversity: functions, threats and tools for policy makers. Bio Intelligence Service, IRD, and NIOO,

Report for European Commission (DG Environment). Doi: 10.2779/14571.

TRIMBLE, M.J.; VAN AARDE, R.J. 2015. Amphibian and reptile communities and functional groups over a land-use gradient in a coastal tropical forest landscape of high richness and endemicity. Animal Conservation 175:441-453.

TYLIANAKIS, J.M.; RAND, T.A.; KAHMEN, A.; KLEIN, A.M.; BUCHMANN, N.; PERNER, J. et al. 2008. Resource heterogeneity moderates the biodiversity-function relationship in real world ecosystems. PLoS Biology 6:947-956.

UNEP. 2007. Global environment outlook. GEO4: environment and development. United Nations Environmental Program. Nairobi, Kenya.

URBINA-CARDONA, J.N.; BERNAL, E.A. GIRALDO-ECHEVERRY, N.; ECHEVERRY-ALCENDRA, A. 2015. El monitoreo de herpetofauna en los procesos de restauración ecológica: indicadores y métodos. AGUILAR-GARAVITO, M. & RAMÍREZ, W. (Eds.). Monitoreo a procesos de restauración ecológica, aplicado a ecosistemas terrestres. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. Bogotá, Colombia.

VANDEWALLE, M.; DE BELLO, F.; BERG, M.P.; BOLGER, T.; DOLEDEC, S.; DUBS, F.; et al. 2010. Functional traits as indicators of biodiversity response to land use changes across ecosystems and organisms. Biodiversity and Conservation 19:2921-2947.

VENAIL, P.; GROSS, K.; OAKLEY, T.H.; NARWANI, A, ALLAN FLOMBAUM, P.; ISBELL, F.; JOSHI, J.; et al. 2015. Data from: Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studies. Functional Ecology 29(5):615-626.

VIHERVAARA, P., M.; RÖNKÄ; WALLS, M. 2010. Trends in Ecosystem Service Research: Early Steps and Current Drivers. AMBIO 39(4):314-324.

VILLÉGER, S.; MASON, N.W.; MOUILLOT, D. 2008. New multidimensional functional diversity indices for a multifaceted framework in functional ecology. Ecology 89(8):2290-2301.

VIOLLE, C.; NAVAS, M.; VILE, D.; KAZAKOU, E.; FORTUNEL, C.; HUMMEL, I; GARNIER, E. 2007. Let the concept of trait be functional. Oikos 116:882-892.

VOGT R. J.; PERES-NETO, P. R.; BEISNER, B. 2013. Using functional traits to investigate the determinants of crustacean zooplankton community structure. Oikos 122:1700–1709.

VOIGT, W.; PERNER, J. 2004. Functional group interaction patterns across trophic levels in a regenerating and a seminatural grassland. Page 156-188. In: Temperton, V.M.; Hobbs, R.J.; Nuttle, T.; Halle, S. (Eds.). Assembly rules and restoration ecology. Island Press. Washington, D.C.

WALKER, B.; HOLLING, C.S.; CARPENTER, S.R.: KINZIG, A. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 9:5. URL:

WALKER, B.; SALT, D. 2006. Resilience thinking. Sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world. Island Press. Washington D.C.

WALKER, B.H. 1992. Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conservation Biology 6:18–23.

WALKER, B.H.; KINZING, A.; LANGRIDGE, J. 1999. Plant attribute diversity, resilience, and ecosystem function: the nature and significance of dominant and minor species. Ecosystems 2:95-113.

WALL, D.H. (Ed.). 2004. Sustaining biodiversity and ecosystem services in soils and sediments. Island Press. Washington, DC.

WHILES, M.R.; HALL JR., R.O.; DODDS, W.K.; VERBURG, P.; HURYN, A.D.; PRINGLE, C.M.; LIPS, K.R.; et al. 2013. Disease-driven amphibian declines alter ecosystem processes in a tropical stream. Ecosystems 16:146-157.

WHITTAKER, R. J.; RIGAL, F.; BORGES P. A.; CARDOSO, P; TERZOPOULOU, S.; CASSANOVES, F.; PLA, L.; et al. 2014. Functional biogeography of oceanic islands and the scaling of functional diversity in the Azores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 111:13709-13714.

WIEDMANN, M. A.; ASCHAN, M.; CERTAIN, G; DOLGOV, A.; GREENACRE, M.; JOHANNESEN, E. 2014. Functional diversity of the Barents Sea fish community. Marine Ecology Progress Series 495:205-218.

WORM, B.; BARBIER, E.B.; BEAUMONT, N.; DUFFY, J.E.; FOLKE, C.; HALPERN, B.S.; JACKSON J.B.; et al. 2006. Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science 314:787-760.

WRIGHT, S. J.; KITAJIMA, K.; KRAFT, N.J.B.; REICH, P.B.; WRIGHT, I.J.; BUNKER, D.E.; CONDIT, R.; et al. 2010. Functional traits and the growth–mortality trade-off in tropical trees. Ecology 91:3664-3674.

ZABALETA, E.S.; PASARI, J.R.; HULVEY, K.B.; TILMAN, G.D. 2010. Sustaining multiple ecosystem functions in grassland communities requires

Citado por

Artículos similares

También puede {advancedSearchLink} para este artículo.